The federalism commission is a German commission composed of members of the upper and lower houses. It has existed three times in German history;. After the German reunification of Germany the Bundesrat decided on the 20 of June to create a commission composed of an equal number of members of all represented parties of the two legislative houses. Its objective was to examine and propose which federal authorities should be introduced into the newly reunified federal states.
It was presided by Bernhard Vogel politician.
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The commission was created to reform the division of powers between federal and state authorities. The commission was composed of 16 members of the Bundestag and 16 members of the Bundesrat and was presided by co-presidents. In addition to these full members there were also non-voting representatives of the federal government, the state legislatures, local government and academics.
The commission was constituted to agree reforms that could initially not be agreed by the commission. The commission was composed of 16 members of each of the two legislative assemblies. The first meeting was held on 8 March , and the final meeting in March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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This article does not cite any sources. Thus, modern local government has a twofold aspect—it is a mixture of both deconcentration and decentralization, of central convenience and an acknowledgment that not all authority ought to be exerted by the centre. The mixture is revealed by the extent to which some of the powers exercised by local government units are exercised compulsorily and under fairly strict control by central authority with financial assistance, while others are not.
This mixture produces the high complexity of modern local government.
In local government, territorial distribution of power is the essence. The history of local government in Western Europe, Great Britain, the United States, and Russia exhibits the growing awareness of its significance. This awareness is a product of a development of parochial and town life which began long before the modern state emerged between the 15th and 17th centuries. Any central control over these and other areas was, until the 18th century, rather scanty.
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Notable exceptions were France under Jean-Baptiste Colbert or 17th-century Prussia, where local authorities were already overlaid by the heavy hand of the central intendants in the former and the war commissariat in the latter. Many Germanic states, such as the Hanse towns, were nothing but cities. In England and especially New England , the local units—parishes, towns, and cities—emerged from their origins as spontaneous self-governing units.
This was also the case in Russia, although there the tsars took strict control of the cities through their provincial governors and over the mir —the village-cum-agricultural unit—through taxes, the police, and the boyars. The state colonized some cities from the beginning.
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The various local units were gradually integrated by the state, which exacted obligations from them regarding peace, crime and police duties, taxes, military supplies, assistance to the poor, and highways. By ordinances or statutes or judicial decisions, local units were subordinated, so that the idea of an inherent right to self-government was extinguished.
By the 19th century all local units had become legal creatures of the state, subsidiary in authority and acting independently by sufferance alone.
The local freedoms of the 19th century were challenged by 1 speed of communications, which reduced administrative time, 2 demands of a planned economy , 3 growth of nationwide political parties with social welfare programs uniform for all parts of the nation, 4 growth of a consciousness favouring a national minimum of services, 5 realization that the best technical administration of modern utilities requires areas knitted together by a central plan that differs from the traditional ones, and 6 needs of civil defense against air attack.
These are powerful forces working against claims to purely self-regarding government. On the other hand, local freedom is supported by need for 1 intimate local knowledge and variation, 2 intensity of local interest and enlistment of loyalty and cooperation, 3 small areas for easy impact of the citizen-consumers upon officials-producers, 4 an accessible area of political education, 5 counterweight to the abuse of central power, and 6 the democratic value of a plurality of political experience and confidence.
In all plans, decentralization, whether to a regional agency such as the Tennessee Valley Authority in the U. You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Local government.
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